Tomographic reconstructions are routinely computed each day.
Our reconstruction algorithms are so reliable that we sometimes forget
we are actually dealing with inverse problems with inherent stability problems.
This is because the algorithms automatically incorporate regularization
techniques that, in most cases, handle very well the stability issues.

In this talk we take a basic look at the inverse problem of CT reconstruction,
in order to understand the stability problems that manifest themselves
in solutions that may be very sensitive to data errors and may also fail
to be unique. We demonstrate how regularization is used to avoid these
problems and make the reconstruction process stable, and how the
regularization is incorporated in standard reconstruction algorithms.
Moreover, we shall see that different regularization techniques have
different impact in the computed reconstructions.

**Tomographic Image Reconstruction Using Training
Images**

Priors are essential for computing stable solutions to imaging problems, and they take many different forms. Here we consider priors in the form of training images, i.e., a collection of cross-section images of the object. We describe an algorithmic framework for this: From the training images we use techniques from machine learning to form a dictionary that captures the desired features, and we then compute a reconstruction with a sparse representation in this dictionary. We describe how to stably compute the dictionary through a regularized non-negative matrix factorization, and we study how this dictionary affects the reconstruction quality. Simulations show that for textural images our approach is competitive with other methods used for limited-data problems.

The regularizing properties of Lanczos bidiagonalization were studied
and advocated by many researchers, including Dianne O'Leary.
This approach is powerful when the underlying Krylov subspace captures the
dominating components of the solution. In some applications the
regularized solution can be further improved by augmenting the Krylov
subspace with a low-dimensional subspace that represents specific prior
information. Inspired by earlier work on GMRES we demonstrate how to
carry these ideas over to the Lanczos bidiagonalization algorithm.

This presentation can be found online
**here**.

**R ^{3}GMRES: Including Prior Information
in GMRES-Type Methods for Discrete Inverse Problems**.

Krylov subspace methods are well suited for computing regularized solutions
to large-scale discrete inverse problems, the regularization coming from
the projection of the problem onto the underlying Krylov subspace.
Several techniques have been proposed that augment the Krylov subspace
with an additional low-dimensional subspace, in order to produce improved
regularized solutions.
We take a closer look at this approach and investigate a particular
regularized range-restricted GMRES method R^{3}GMRES with a
subspace that represents prior information about the solution.
We discuss the efficient implementation of this approach and we
demonstrate its advantage by means of several test problems.

**Repeated Blurring Operations Produce
Sharper Images: Image Deblurring with Krylov Subspace Methods**.
*Invited presentation at the UCL Centre for Inverse Problems: Opening
Meeting, March 18-21, 2013.*

Image deblurring, i.e., reconstruction of a sharper image from a blurred
and noisy one, involves the solution of a large and very ill-conditioned
system of linear equations, and regularization is needed in order to compute
a stable solution. Krylov subspace methods are often ideally suited for
this task: their iterative nature is a natural way to handle such
large-scale problems, and the underlying Krylov subspace provides a
convenient mechanism to regularized the problem by projecting it onto a
low-dimensional "signal subspace" adapted to the particular problem.
In this talk we consider the three Krylov subspace methods CGLS, MINRES,
and GMRES. We describe their regularizing properties, and we discuss some
computational aspects such as preconditioning and stopping criteria.

A short paper that summarized the results is available
**here**.

A video presentation of this talk given at the Scientific Computing and
Imaging Institute, University of Utah, is available
**here**.

**A Parameter-Choice Method that Exploits Residual
Information**

All regularization methods – used for computing stable solutions to inverse problems – rely on the choice of the regularization parameter that balances the solution's smoothness and how well it fits the data. Most algorithms for choosing this regularization parameter are based on the norm of the residual vector. However, the residual vector carries important information about the regularized solution, and therefore it can be advantageous to seek to extract more of the information available there. We present important relations between the residual components and the amount of information that is available in the noisy data, and we show how to use statistical tools and fast Fourier transforms to extract this information efficiently. This approach leads to a computationally inexpensive parameter-choice rule based on the normalized cumulative periodogram, which is particularly suited for large-scale problems.

**Image Deblurring in the Light of the Cosine
Transform**

This talk focuses on regularizing iterations based on Krylov subspaces. The regularization comes from the projection of the solution on the Krylov subspace associated with the method, and the number of iterations plays the role of the regularization parameter. We use the two-dimensional discrete cosine transform to perform a spectral analysis of the solutions to the image deblurring problem, computed by means of regularizing iterations, and we focus on CGLS/LSQR and GMRES and their variants MINRES, RRGMRES and MR-II.

The iterative reconstruction method known as ART (Algebraic Reconstruction
Technique) and Kaczmarz's method, as well as its many variants,
are surprisingly simple and efficient methods with many applications
in computed tomography, where we compute 2D and 3D reconstructions from noisy
and often incomplete projections.
On the theoretical side we are interested in explaining why it is so
successful,
and on the practical side how to implement it efficiently, how to select the
relaxation parameter, and how to stop the iterations.
This talk takes the form of an "exhibit" of the many aspects of ART.

A short research report is available
**here**.

**ART Performance** *Invited presentation at
the International Workshop on Mathematical Imaging and Emerging Modalities,
June 27-30, 2016.*

An extended verion of the above talk.

**Column-Action Methods in Image Reconstruction**

Column-oriented versions of algebraic iterative methods are interesting alternatives to their row-version counterparts: they converge to a least squares solution, and they provide a basis for saving computational work by skipping small updates. We motivate these methods from an optimization point of view, we present a convergence analysis, and we discuss two techniques (loping and flagging) for reducing the work. The performance of the algorithms is illustrated with numerical examples from computed tomography.

**Semi-Convergence Properties of Kaczmarz's Method
(ART)**

Kaczmarz’s method – sometimes referred to as the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) – is an iterative method that is widely used in tomographic imaging, due to its favorable semi-convergence properties. Specifically, when applied to a problem with noisy data, during the early iterations it converges very fast toward a good approximation to the exact solution, and thus produces a regularized solution. While this property is generally accepted and utilized, there is surprisingly little theoretical justification for it. The purpose of this talk is to present insight into the semi-convergence of Kaczmarz’s method as well as its projected counterpart. To do this we study how the data errors propagate into the iteration vectors and we derive bounds for this noise propagation, thus providing a justification of their use as regularization methods. Our bounds are compared with numerical results obtained from tomographic imaging.

**AIR Tools - A MATLAB Package of Algebraic
Iterative Reconstruction Methods**

We present a MATLAB package AIR Tools with implementations of several
Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction methods for discretizations of
inverse problems.
Two classes of methods are implemented: Simultaneous Iterative
Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT) and Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART).
In addition we provide a few simplified test problems from medical and
seismic tomography.

For each iterative method, a number of strategies are available for
choosing the relaxation parameter and the stopping rule.
The relaxation parameter can be fixed, or chosen adaptively in each
iteration; in the former case we provide the possibility for choosing
the parameter by means of "training," i.e., finding the optimal parameter
for a given test problem.
The stopping rules provided are the discrepancy principle, the monotone
error rule, and the NCP criterion; for the first two methods "training"
can be used to find the optimal discrepancy parameter.

**Semi-Convergence and Relaxation Parameters for a Class of SIRT Algorithms**

**Unprojected SIRT Algorithms**

**Projected SIRT Algorithms**

Large-scale discretizations of ill-posed problems (such as imaging problems
in tomography) call for the use of iterative methods, because direct
factorization methods are infeasible.
In particular, there is an interest in regularizing iterations, where the
iteration vector can be considered as a regularized solution, with the
iteration index playing the role of the regularizing parameter.
Initially the iteration vector approaches a regularized solution,
while continuing the iteration often leads to iteration vectors
corrupted by noise.

This work focuses on a class of non-stationary iteration methods, often
referred to as Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Techniques (SIRT),
including Landweber and Cimmino iteration.
These methods incorporate a relaxation parameter, and the convergence rate
of the initial iterations depends on the choice of this parameter.
In principle, one can use a fixed parameter, but usually a good value is
not known a priori.
An attractive alternative is to choose the relaxation parameter
automatically in each iteration, in such a way that fast semi-convergence
is obtained.

We study the semi-convergence for the SIRT methods, and we use our insight
to propose two new methods for adaptively choosing the re-laxation parameter.
Based on a careful analysis of the semi-convergence behaviour of these methods,
we propose two new techniques to specify the relaxation parameters during the
iterations, so as to control the propagated noise component of the error.
The advantage of using this strategy for noisy and ill-conditioned problems
is demonstrated with an example from tomography.

Total Variation (TV) regularization is a powerful technique for image reconstruction tasks such as denoising, in-painting, and deblurring, because of its ability to produce sharp edges in the images. In this talk we discuss the use of TV regularization for tomographic imaging, where we compute a 2D or 3D reconstruction from noisy projections. We demonstrate that for a small signal-to-noise ratio, this new approach allows us to compute better (i.e., more reliable) reconstructions than those obtained by classical methods. This is possible due to the use of the TV reconstruction model, which incorporates our prior information about the solution and thus compensates for the loss of accuracy in the data. A consequence is that smaller data acquisition times can be used, thus reducing a patient’s exposure to X-rays in medical scanning and speeding up non-destructive measurements in materials science.

A short paper that summarizex the results is available
**here**.